Fiber optics is the channel transmission or similar cables made ​​of glass or plastic is very smooth and smaller than a strand of hair, and can be used to transmit the signal light from one place to another. The light source used is usually a laser or LED  . This cable diameter of approximately 120 micrometers. The light that is in fiber optics do not get out because the refractive index of glass is greater than the refractive index of air, because the laser has a very narrow spectrum. Optical fiber transmission speed is very high so it is great to use as a communication channel.

The development of fiber optic technology today, has been able to generate attenuation (attenuation) of less than 20 decibels (dB) / km. With a track width (bandwidth) is large so that the ability to transmit data becomes more and faster compared with the use of conventional cable. Thus the optical fiber is suitable for use primarily in applications systems telecommunication  . In principle, the optical fiber reflect and refract a light propagating therein.

The efficiency of the optical fiber is determined by the purity of the constituents of the glass / glass. The more pure glass material, the less light is absorbed by the optical fiber.

The use of light as an information carrier is already widely used since ancient times, only about 1930 scientists German began an experiment to transmit light through a material called fiber optics. This experiment is still considered quite primitive because the outcome can not be directly used, but it must be through the development and further refinement. The next development was when the scientists are the UK in 1958 proposed a prototype optical fibers hitherto used is composed of a glass core wrapped by other glasses. Around the early 1960s fantastic changes occur in Asia, namely when scientists Japan managed to create a kind of optical fiber capable of transmitting images.



On the other hand scientists than trying to guide the light passes through the glass (optical fiber) but also tries to "tame" the light. Hard work and even then successfully when about 1959 laser found. The laser operates at a frequency area appeared to be about 1014 Hertz 15 Hertz or hundreds of thousands of times the frequency of the microwaves.

At first the laser beam-producing equipment they are large and cumbersome. Besides inefficient, he had to work at very low temperatures. Lasers are also not reflected straight. In very bright light conditions too, radiance easy snaking follow the atmospheric density. At that time, a laser beam within a distance of 1 km, was able to arrive at the final destination on many points with a deviation of up to a matter of meters distance.

Around the '60s found that optical fiber very high purity, less than one part in a million. In everyday language means fiber that is very clear and does not deliver electricity is so pure, so it is said, if the sea water is as pure as optical fibers, with adequate lighting normal eye will be able to watch then-lalangnya basic occupant Pacific Ocean.

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Just as lasers, optical fibers also have to go through the stages of early development. As light transmission medium, it is very inefficient. Until 1968 or later two years after the first optical fiber is forecast to be the guiding light, the level of attenuation (loss) was still 20 dB / km. Through the development in material technology, optical fiber undergo purification, dehidran and others. Slowly but surely attenuation reaching levels below 1 dB / km.

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